The Relationship between Political Conflict (2013/ 2016) and Marketing Performances of Libyan Tourism SMEs
The current study seeks to attain the following objectives: (1) to develop a comprehensive construct to measure marketing performance of Libyan Tourism SMEs; (2) to investigate Libyan managers' attitudes towards their businesses' Marketing Performances; (3) to measure the linkage between Libyan political crisis 2013/ 2016 and marketing performances of Tourism SMEs; and (4) to introduce some key recommendations and implications for theory and practice. In terms of research methodology, a comprehensive construct was developed based on literature review to collect the required data. A number of (15) components and (82) items were generated to capture the marketing performance domain. This construct was reviewed by a pool of (8) academicians at Management Schools of Libyan universities. Top management nominees in Libyan tourism SMEs in Benghazi City were targeted in two different occasions: the pilot-study and actual field work. A number of (65) tourism agencies, (7) hotels, (3) airlines representatives has been targeted in this research. Out of (400) questionnaires circulated, only (113) questionnaires were returned with (98) deemed valid for data analysis. The key finding of the study is that there is evident decline in marketing performance of Libyan tourism SMEs. The Libyan Political Crisis (2013 – 2016) has negative correlation with businesses' marketing performances as well. Furthermore, demographical and institutional factors demonstrated to have no significant impact on the research results. The key value of this research is that it is conducted under crisis circumstances, and it might be the first research to focus on measuring marketing performance of Libyan tourism businesses. Additionally, the emphasis was placed in particular on the crisis's consequence. Therefore, this article enriches international marketing literature with findings from the Arabic and North African region. Practically, the paper demonstrates the consequences of (exceptional events) political crises on tourism industry's performances. Therefore, foreign businesses, Libyan decision makers and tourism businesses' managers should take advantages from the results of this research. Finally, the paper concludes with limitations and future research.